Quality Donor System™
The Quality Donor System (QDS) is a health-history
self-interviewing system used to qualify blood donors. It embodies
audio-visual touch-screen computer-assisted Self Interviewing (AVT-CASI)
to provide a simple multimedia experience for potential donors.
Salient characteristics of QDS are:
Donor self interview
Uses AABB Uniform Donor History Questionnaire
(UDHQ) - 48 multimedia questions [Most current version 1.1]
Staff review - assures completeness and
consistency of donor responses and staff decisions relative to
Intuitive touch and stylus operation produces an
auditable paper record
Scientifically proven to reduce or eliminate human
errors and improve quality
English & Spanish languages available
Communicates with existing BECS. No retraining required for
Installed in six regional blood centers and two
hospital blood banks
Over 2,000,000 completed donor interviews through 2008
FDA 510(k) cleared
How QDS works
The Talisman Quality Donor System is an automated donor screening system (ADS).
It currently supports English and Spanish, but can be extended to include an
unlimited number of other languages. The system is a multimedia system, meaning
that screening questions are presented to the donor using audio, text and
photographs or other graphics such as maps. This combination of modalities
maximizes comprehension and also addresses health illiteracy by providing
multiple, mutually-reinforcing cues.
The Quality Donor System is based on
Audiovisual Touch-screen Computer Assisted Self-interview technology
(AVT-CASI). This means that questions are presented to the donor
using text, pictures and sound on a touch-screen tablet computer.
Questions are presented one at a time. Each question screen consists
of the question text, in the donor’s chosen language, a suggestive
picture to aid recall and an audio reading of the question. When the
question has been read once, response buttons are displayed. The
donor can respond “Yes” or “No” to a question, return to an earlier
question, skip the current question or ask for help (“???”). (See
Other question screen features include the
ability to repeat the audio track (by touching the staff member
picture) and blanking the question text and picture (for privacy, if
using headphones for audio.)
In addition to the basic question format above,
some questions include additional, user-modifiable text, such as the
Medication Deferral List: (See below)
Another screen format includes maps:
The donor completely controls their own
experience with the questionnaire, taking as much time as needed to
complete all questions, with the ability to return to earlier
questions and repeating audio on any question.
When the donor has completed the questionnaire,
they are told to notify the staff for the next step.
Staff can review the donor’s responses either
at the same workstation or at another workstation, depending on how
workflow is set up. When staff selects this donor for review, the
Donor Summary screen (below) shows the status of the donor’s
responses. All questions with aberrant responses (those not
expected) are highlighted with color and icons (green check for
expected and yellow triangle for unexpected), and must be reviewed
before the donor can complete processing.
In the example above, questions 5 and 9 must be
reviewed. Note that questions 7 and 21 are in black type with no
status icons. In the Uniform Donor History Questionnaire, these are
questions only asked of female donors. Since this is a male donor,
the female questions were not presented.
Staff chooses which questions to review and in
which order. Questions are reviewed using the Review a Question
This screen lets the staff member specify the
final response as well as their decision whether to accept or defer
the donor for this question. If a deferral, the duration must be
specified. In any case, the question review must be documented.
Documentation can be done by choosing from a list of predefined
comments and/or with freely entered text. To complete the question
review and proceed, all elements must be entered.
The Quality Donor System is, to our knowledge,
the only CASI system that tracks donor travel over time (below).
This improves responses to travel questions, which are critical to
determining exposure to malaria and other parasitic diseases, as
well as HIV and vCJD risk. Travel history is cumulative, so donors
do not have to remember all their prior travel. They only have to
disclose travel since their last visit. Over time, this reduces
post-donation information as well as the need to call a donor back
with supplemental questions.
When all questions have been reviewed, the
results are shown on the updated Donor Summary below. In this
example, the red item is a question that was answered aberrantly but
which does not require that the donor be deferred.
At this point, processing this donor can
continue with staff recording their vital signs exam, presenting an
informed consent and collecting the donor’s signature and a witness
signature on a signature pad.
After these steps are completed, the donor
history card is printed (below).
The above description illustrates the general
design approach of QDS. All donor interactions use an intuitive
audiovisual interface with touch-screen inputs. Staff interactions
use the same paradigm.
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